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BIO201 : Cell Biology

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Prof. Dr. Fridoon Jawad Ahmad
University of Wisconsin Madison, USA

Course Contents


Cell Biology Introduction, Composition of Matter, Molecules of Life, Proteins: Polymers of Amino Acids, Proteins: Structure, Protein Interactions, Carbohydrates: Sugar Polymers Carbohydrates: Glycosidic linkages, Lipids: Nonpolar Hydrocarbons, Lipids: Saturated & Unsaturated, Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA, RNA & DNA, Cell Biology: Unit of Life, Journey Into the Cell Size Matters, The Nucleus, Ribosomes, The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi & Lysosomes, Mitochondria,Cytoskeleton-1, Cytoskeleton-2, Motor Proteins, The Miracle Workers, Energy,Free Energy, Exergonic & Endergonic Reactions, ATP Hydrolysis, Enzymes, Enzymes Mechanisms, Enzyme Helpers, Enzyme Regulation, Membranes, Membrane Components, Recognition & Adhesion, Transport Across Membrane, Vesicle Formation, Cell Division Introduction, Cell Cycle, Chromosomes, Mitosis 1,Mitosis 2,Meiosis 1, Meiosis 2, Meiosis 3, Comparison, Genetics Introduction, The Question, The Lessons Learned, The First Law, The Second Law, Aberrant Phenomenon, Linkage & Recombination, Genetics Map, Clinical Genetics I, Clinical Genetics II, X-Linked Disorders, Multifactorial Disorders, Cytogenetic Disorders, Autosomal Cytogenetic Disorders, Cytogenetic Disorders of the Sex Chromosomes, Search for the Hereditary Molecules 1, Search for the Hereditary Molecules 2, Investigating: Heredity Molecule, DNA Function From Structure, Replication Models, DNA Replication The Molecular View, DNA Replication The Process, The Dilemma 1, The Dilemma 2 & 3, PCR Technology Introduction, PCR Animation, PCR Continued, Detecting Amplified DNA, Gel Electrophoresis,  Animation, PCR Technology, Applications, DNA Finger Printing, DNA Sequencing, Restriction Endonucleases, Genetic Engineering, RFLP, DNA Transfer, Genetic Information is Converted into Protein, The Dogma, Transcription, Genetic Code, Charging tRNA, Translation Workbench, Translation, Protein Targeting, Mutations, Transcription Regulation, Introduction, Transcription Regulationin E. Coli1, Transcription Regulationin E. Coli2, Transcription Regulation, In Eukaryotes, Eukaryotic Transcription, RNA Processing, Cell Signaling & Prehistoric world, The Instructions & The Design, The Modes & Principles, The Modes & Principles II, The Modes & Principles III, Signaling in E. coli, G Protein-Linked Receptors, Protein Kinases A, G Proteins, G Proteins Vision, Cell Signaling & Us, Cell Signaling & Memory, Enzyme Linked Receptors, Enzyme Linked Receptors 2, Enzyme Linked Receptors 3, RTK Signaling Gone Wrong, PI3-kinase, PKB Apoptosis Inhibition, Jak-STAT Signaling, TGF-β Receptor Family, Proteolysis, Signaling Pathways, Introduction, Immune System, Immune System 2, Immune System 3, AIS, The B-Cells, The B-Cells2, The Antibodies, Immunological Memory, Acquired Immunological Tolerance, Antibody Diversity, Class Switching, T-Cells and TCR, APCs Activate T-Cells, MHC, Cytotoxic T-Cells, Helper T-Cells, TH1& TH2, TH2B-Cell Activation, Checks & Balances, Complement System, Complement System 2, The Alternative Pathway, Neoplastic Transformations, Growth Promoting Oncogenes, Growth Promoting Oncogenes Cyclins& CDK, Growth-Inhibiting Cancer Suppressor Genes, DNA Repairing Genes, Apoptosis Genes, Protein Sorting, Protein Sorting Mechanisms, Nuclear Transport, Nuclear localization Signals (NLS) & Transport, Nuclear Receptors, The RAN Cycle, Control of Import and Export, Protein Transport into Mitochondria, The Translocators, ER Transport Introduction, ER Transport, Translocation, Multi-Pass Membrane Proteins, Vesicle Transport, COP I, COP I the Retrieval Process, Lysosomal Transport, Endocytosis, Tissue Replacement, Organ Repair via Stem Cells, Customized Stem Cells, Adult Stem Cells, Cytokine Induced Stem Cell Proliferation & Differentiation, In-vitro Organ/Tissue Fabrication.


1.    Microscopy
2.     Staining techniques
3.     Differential staining
4.     Gram staining
5.     Study of Prokaryotic cell
6.     Study of eukaryotic cell
7.     Study of plastids
8.     Study of chromoplast
9.     Observation of chromoplast from rose petal
10. Observation of chromoplast from rose petal
11.  Study of leucoplast
12.  Study of chloroplast
13.  Process of cellular reproduction
14.  Study of mitosis
15.  Study of meiosis
16.  Smear/Squash preparation of Onion roots