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BIO301 : Essentials of Genetics

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Prof. Dr. Jamil Ahmad
Post Doctorate
WHO-IARC, Lyon, France

Course Contents

Genetics Definition, Types of Genetics ,Genetics Terminologies ,Mendel s’ law of Dominance     Monohybrid Cross and Dihybrid Cross , Mendel s’ law of Segregations  , Mendel s' law of Independent Assortment     Modern Genetics Concepts     Importance of Genetics     Heredity     Variation  Genetic and Acquired Variation Types of Variation    Source of variation     Heredity and Variation in Mendel s’ work   Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Inheritance     Conclusions of Mendelian Inheritance     Exceptions to Mendelian Inheritance     Incomplete Dominance     Co-dominance     Polygenic traits     Epistasis     Pleiotropy     Environmental Effects     What are Chromosomes     Cell, Nucleus and Chromosome     Chromosome Numbers in Different Species     Chromosomes in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes     Salient features of Chromosomes     Size of Chromosomes    Types of Chromosomes    Centromere Functions     Telomere Functions     Euchromatin and Heterochromatin     Staining and Banding Chromosomes     Nucleosomes     Chromatin and Chromosomes     High Order Chromatin Folding     Kinetochore     Karyotyping     Prokaryotic Chromosomes     Sex Chromosomes and Sex determination     Salient features of DNA     Nucleotides     Conformations of DNA     Chargaff Rule of Base Ratio     Giant Chromosomes     Lampbrush chromosome     Cell Division     Cell Cycle     Mitosis     Unreplicated and Replicated Chromosomes     Interphase     Prophase of Mitosis     Metaphase of Mitosis     Anaphase of Mitosis     Telophase of Mitosis     Cytokinesis     Mitotic Spindles     Somatic cells and Gametes     Homologous Chromosomes     Meiosis     Stages of Meiosis     Prophase I of Meiosis     Metaphase I of Meiosis     Anaphase I of Meiosis     Telophase I of Meiosis     Prophase II of Meiosis     Metaphase II of Meiosis     Anaphase II of Meiosis     Telophase II of Meiosis     Mitosis and Meiosis     Summary - Mitosis and Meiosis     Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance     Experiments of T H. Morgan     Effect of Linkage on Inheritance     Linkage Mapping     Linkage map of Drosophila Chromosome     Chromosomal Basis of Sex Determination     Sex Determination in Other Organisms     Inheritance of Sex linked genes     Genetic Mapping in Humans     Concept of Multiple Alleles     Multiple Alleles - our blood group     Blood groups and Transfusions     Multiple alleles effect in Drosophila     Correlation of Alleles and Genotypes     Linkage and Cross over     Chromosome Mapping     Genetic and Physical Map     Mapping genes In human Pedigrees     Polygenic Inheritance     Examples of Polygenic inheritance     What is Epistasis     Types of Epistasis     Types of Epistasis-Dominant     Example of Epistasis-Labrador Retrievers     What is Epigenetics     Epigenetic Modifications     Epigenetics regulated Phenomena     Therapies Targeting Epigenetics     Environmental Factors and Epigenetics     Epigenetics- Conclusions     Penetrance and Expressivity     Penetrance and Expressivity- Example     Chromosomal Aberrations     Karyotyping- international description     Defining Chromosome Location     Common Numerical Abnormalities     Structural Abnormalities     Translocations     Non-disjunction     Trisomy     Monosomy     Polyploidy     Alloploidy     Polyploidy and Aneuploidy     Chromosomal Deletions     Chromosomal Insertions     Chromosomal Inversions     Ring Chromosome     What is Mutation     Types of Mutation     Somatic and Germline Mutation     Forward, Reverse and Neutral Mutation     Loss of function, Gain of function     Spontaneous and Induced Mutation     Suppressor Mutation     Point Mutations     Silent Mutation     Missense Mutation     Nonsense Mutation     Additions Mutation     Inversion Mutation     Deletions Mutation     How Mutations alter Gene Function     Mutation Nomenclature     Salient feature of Mutation Nomenclature     Mutation at DNA, RNA and Protein level     Mutation in Intronic Sequence     Specific changes in Sequence     Mutations-Summary     What are Genetic Disorders     Inheritance Patterns of Genetic Disorders     Autosomal Recessive Inheritance     Characteristics of Autosomal Recessive Inheritance     Autosomal Dominant Inheritance     Variation in Phenotype of A.D. inheritance     Dominance and Recessiveness     X-linked recessive inheritance     X-linked dominant inheritance     Maternal inheritance of mt DNA     Multifactorial inheritance     Frequency of genetic disorders     Diagnostic tests for genetic disorders     Genetic counseling     Complications to basic inheritance pattern     Drawing pedigree     Pedigree analysis     What is polymorphism     Types of polymorphism     Restriction fragment length polymorphism     VNTR     Short tandem repeat polymorphism     RAPD and AFLP     Distribution of SNPs, Screening and importance of SNPs .


  1. Safety Protocols in a Genetics Lab
  2. Sources and Recovery of DNA
  3. Methods of DNA extraction and purification
  4. Methods of RNA purification from blood
  5. Affinity purification of total RNA
  6. Chromosome staining
  7. Banding of chromosomes (C, Q, R, T)
  8. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  9. Types of polymerase chain reaction
  10. Southern blotting
  11. Western blotting
  12. Northern blotting
  13. Genetic problem-I
  14. Genetic problem-II
  15. Genetic problem-III
  16. Genetic problem-IV