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BIO302 : Molecular Biology

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Dr. Hamid Mukhtar
Government College University, Lahore.

Course Contents

Theory contents:

Introduction to Molecular Biology: Reviewing fundamental concepts about molecular biology, Basic concepts about DNA: Chemical composition & structure of DNA, Basic concepts about RNA: Chemical composition & structure of RNA, Basic concepts about Proteins: Chemical composition & structure of Proteins, Nature of Genetic Material: Experiments proving that DNA is the genetic material (Griffith’s experiments etc.), Organization of genetic material in Viruses: Nucleic acids in phages, genomes of animal & plant viruses, Organization of genetic material in Prokaryotes: The structure and organization of bacterial chromatin and bacterial chromosomes, Organization of genetic material in Eukaryotes: The structure and organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, nucleosomes, histones, Central dogma of life: Description of the Flow of genetic information, replication, transcription, reverse transcription and translation, DNA Replication: (Chemistry of DNA synthesis, DNA Polymerase, Replication fork, Initiation of Replication, Binding & unwinding, Finishing replication), DNA mutation: (Nature of mutations, Spontaneous mutations by hydrolysis & deamination, Mutations by alkylation, Mutations by UV radiations, Mutations by Gamma & X-rays, Mutations by base analogs & intercalating agents), DNA repair:(Direct reversal of DNA damage, Base Excision Repair, Nucleotide Excision Repair, Recombination Repairs, Direct joining of broken ends), Transcription (RNA Polymerases & Transcription cycle, Transcription cycle in Bacteria, Transcription cycle in Eukaryotes), RNA Splicing: (Chemistry of RNA splicing, Spliceosome Machinery, Splicing Pathways, Exon Shuffling), RNA Editing: Altering the sequence of mRNA, Translation: (Initiation of Translation, Elongation of Translation, Termination of Translation), Post Translational modifications: Nascent polypeptide processing & folding, Regulatory Elements: (Regulation by RNAs in bacteria, Promotors, Enhancers & Silencers), Regulation of gene expression : (mRNA, Lactose Operon, Catabolite Repression, Galactose Operon, Tryptophan Operon), Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes: (Gene expression is controlled by regulatory proteins), Introduction to Plasmids: (Introduction to different types of vectors used in molecular biology), Introduction to Vectors: Introduction to different types of vectors used in molecular biology.

Practical Contents:

  1. Lab safety protocols
  2. Lab equipment 
  3. Preparation of stock solutions.
  4. Preparation of working solutions.  
  5. Isolation of nucleic acids.
  6. Quantification of nucleic acids
  7. Restriction digestion of DNA
  8. Preparation of restriction maps. 
  9. Gel electrophoresis 
  10. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 
  11. Detection of mutations
  12. Restriction fragment length polymorphism. 
  13. Preparation of chemically competent cells.
  14. Transformation of bacteria with plasmid DNA.
  15. Comparing plasmids of different molecular weights 
  16. Molecular weights marker