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BIO301 : Essentials of Genetics

Course Overview

Course Synopsis

This is one of the course which introduces students to the fundamentals of genetic science through a basic study of the genetic material, what is the mode of inheritance, genetic and inherited diseases, concept of classical genetics, long way of Mendelian genetics to modern genetics, speciation, and evolutionary genetics, differentiation between microevolution and macroevolution. Moreover, advanced studies of genes, genomes and molecular genetics will also be touches in the later part of the course.

Course Learning Outcomes

Mendelian Genetics, Modern Genetics and Molecular Genetics

  • classical genetics, modern genetics, types of genetics, mode of inheritances, genetics diseases, genomics, Modern research and research techniques in genetics, molecular genetics. understanding of all these topics will enable you to understand the advanced courses in general genetics, molecular biology, cell biology, recombinant DNA technology and genomics

Course Calendar

Genetics Definition1
Types of Genetics2
Genetics Terminologies3
Mendel s’ law of Dominance4
Monohybrid Cross and Dihybrid Cross5
Mendel s’ law of Segregations6
Mendel s' law of Independent Assortment7
Modern Genetics Concepts8
Importance of Genetics9
Genetic and Acquired Variation12
Types of Variation13
Source of variation14
Heredity and Variation in Mendel s’ work15
Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Inheritance16
Conclusions of Mendelian Inheritance17
Exceptions to Mendelian Inheritance18
Incomplete Dominance19
Assignment No. 1
Polygenic traits21
Environmental Effects24
What are Chromosomes25
Cell, Nucleus and Chromosome26
Chromosome Numbers in Different Species27
Chromosomes in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes28
Salient features of Chromosomes29
Size of Chromosomes30
Types of Chromosomes31
Centromere Functions32
Telomere Functions33
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin34
Staining and Banding Chromosomes35
Chromatin and Chromosomes37
High Order Chromatin Folding38
Prokaryotic Chromosomes41
Sex Chromosomes and Sex determination42
Salient features of DNA43
Conformations of DNA45
Chargaff Rule of Base Ratio46
Giant Chromosomes47
Lampbrush chromosome48
Assignment No. 2
Cell Division49
Cell Cycle50
Unreplicated and Replicated Chromosomes52
Prophase of Mitosis54
Metaphase of Mitosis55
Anaphase of Mitosis56
Telophase of Mitosis57
Mitotic Spindles59
Somatic cells and Gametes60
Homologous Chromosomes61
Stages of Meiosis63
Prophase I of Meiosis64
Metaphase I of Meiosis65
Anaphase I of Meiosis66
Telophase I of Meiosis67
Prophase II of Meiosis68
Metaphase II of Meiosis69
Anaphase II of Meiosis70
Telophase II of Meiosis71
Mitosis and Meiosis72
Summary - Mitosis and Meiosis73
Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance74
Experiments of T H. Morgan75
Quiz No. 1
Effect of Linkage on Inheritance76
Linkage Mapping77
Linkage map of Drosophila Chromosome78
Chromosomal Basis of Sex Determination79
Sex Determination in Other Organisms80
Inheritance of Sex linked genes81
Genetic Mapping in Humans82
Concept of Multiple Alleles83
Multiple Alleles - our blood group84
Blood groups and Transfusions85
Multiple alleles effect in Drosophila86
Correlation of Alleles and Genotypes87
Linkage and Cross over88
Mid term
Chromosome Mapping89
Genetic and Physical Map90
Mapping genes In human Pedigrees91
Polygenic Inheritance92
Examples of Polygenic inheritance93
What is Epistasis94
Types of Epistasis95
Types of Epistasis-Dominant96
Example of Epistasis-Labrador Retrievers97
What is Epigenetics98
Epigenetic Modifications99
Epigenetics regulated Phenomena100
Therapies Targeting Epigenetics101
Environmental Factors and Epigenetics102
Epigenetics- Conclusions103
Penetrance and Expressivity104
Penetrance and Expressivity- Example105
Assignment No. 3
Chromosomal Aberrations106
Karyotyping- international description107
Defining Chromosome Location108
Common Numerical Abnormalities109
Structural Abnormalities110
Polyploidy and Aneuploidy117
Chromosomal Deletions118
Chromosomal Insertions119
Chromosomal Inversions120
Ring Chromosome121
What is Mutation122
Types of Mutation123
Somatic and Germline Mutation124
Forward, Reverse and Neutral Mutation125
Loss of function, Gain of function126
Spontaneous and Induced Mutation127
Suppressor Mutation128
Point Mutations129
Silent Mutation130
Missense Mutation131
Nonsense Mutation132
Additions Mutation133
Inversion Mutation134
Deletions Mutation135
How Mutations alter Gene Function136
Mutation Nomenclature137
Salient feature of Mutation Nomenclature138
Quiz No. 2
Mutation at DNA, RNA and Protein level139
Mutation in Intronic Sequence140
Specific changes in Sequence141
What are Genetic Disorders143
Inheritance Patterns of Genetic Disorders144
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance145
Characteristics of Autosomal Recessive Inheritance146
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance147
Variation in Phenotype of A.D. inheritance148
Dominance and Recessiveness149
X-linked recessive inheritance150
X-linked dominant inheritance151
Maternal inheritance of mt DNA152
Multifactorial inheritance153
Frequency of genetic disorders154
Diagnostic tests for genetic disorders155
Genetic counseling156
Complications to basic inheritance pattern157
Drawing pedigree158
Pedigree analysis159
What is polymorphism160
Types of polymorphism161
Restriction fragment length polymorphism162
Short tandem repeat polymorphism164
RAPD and AFLP165
Distribution of SNPs166
Screening and importance of SNPs167
Finalterm exam
Genetic bases Problem 1168
Genetic bases Problem 2169
Genetic bases Problem 3170
Genetic bases Problem 4171
Genetic bases Problem 5172
Genetic bases Problem 6173
Genetic bases Problem 7174
Genetic bases Problem 8175
Genetic bases Problem 9176
Genetic bases Problem 10177
Genetic bases Problem 11178
Genetic bases Problem 12179
Genetic bases Problem 13180
Genetic bases Problem 14181
Genetic bases Problem 15182
Genetic bases Problem 16183
Genetic bases Problem 17184
Source and recovery of DNA185
DNA amount for molecular techniques186
Methods of DNA purification187
Organic method reagents188
Organic method summary189
Organic method procedure (I)190
Organic method procedure (II)191
Phenol chloroform in organic method192
Role of ethanol and isopropanol193
Suspension and storage of DNA194
Organic method properties195
DNA extraction- non organic method196
Total cellular RNA197
RNA purification- samples198
RNA purification -blood199
RNA purification- organic method200
RNA purification- affinity method201
RNA purification- human blood (I)202
RNA purification - human blood (II)203
RNA purification- human blood (III)204
Quantitation of RNA205
Chromosomes staining206
Giemsa Staining207
Giemsa Staining procedure208
C banding of chromosomes209
Q banding of chromosomes210
R banding of chromosomes211
T banding of chromosomes212
Polymerase chain reaction213
Steps of PCR214
Ingredients of PCR215
Primers for PCR216
DNA polymerases217
Standard PCR reaction218
Interpretation of results219
Types of PCR220
Nested PCR221
Multiplex PCR222
Reverse transcriptase PCR223
Real time PCR224
Hot start PCR225
Asymmetric PCR226
Long PCR227
Allelic specific PCR228
Colony PCR229
In situ PCR230
Inverse PCR231
Assembly PCR233
Suicide PCR234
Methylation specific PCR235
Inter sequence specific PCR236
Ligation mediated PCR237
Whole genome amplification PCR238
Mini primer PCR239
Advantages and limitations of PCR240
Applications of PCR241
Southern blotting242
Southern blotting procedure243
Southern blotting probes244
Transfer methods in southern blotting245
Mutations identification by southern blotting246
Northern blotting247
Northern blot applications248
Western blotting249
Western blotting procedure250
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