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ZOO505 : Cell and Molecular Biology

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Course Info

Course Category

Zoology

Course Level

Undergraduate

Credit Hours

4

Pre-requisites

N/A

Instructor

Afifa Zaeem
Mphil-Biotechnology
Quaid-i-Azam University

Course Contents

Introduction to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: Plasma membrane, its chemical composition structure and functions of plasma membranes, cell permeability, active transport, endocytosis, phagocytosis.

Cytoskeleton: Microfilaments, Microtubules, Intermediate filaments.

Cytoplasmic Organelles: Membrane system, structural and functional commonalities. Ultrastructure, chemical composition and functions of Endoplasmic Reticulum and their role in protein synthesis and drug metabolism, Golgi apparatus its role in synthesis of glycoprotein, Mitochondrial respiration and its significance as semi- autonomous organelle; Lysosome, its diverse roles due to hydrolytic activity of enzymes, Peroxisome, its role in metabolism of hydrogen peroxide, Glycoxysome with reference to glyoxylic acid cycle.

Nucleus: chromatin, heterochromatin, euchromatin, chromosome structure, coiling and nucleosome during different phases of cell cycle.

Replication : mechanism, DNA replication in prokaryotes specially with reference to variety of DNA polymerases and other proteins involved, DNA replication in Eukaryotes with emphasis on DNA polymerases, concept of replicons etc.,

Transcription: variety of RNA and their characteristics, synthesis of mRNA, rRNA and tRNA with special reference to enzymes involved, RNA splicing, split genes, concept of ribozymes and Posttranscriptional processing, Genetic code, point mutations. 

Translation: Specific role of Ribosomes, various factors, and posttranslational processing, control of gene expression in Prokaryotes.


Practicals

  • Study of Prokaryotic cell
  • Eukaryotic, Plant and Animal cells
  • Observation of wet mounts of human cheek cells employing bright and dark field microscope
  • Study of cellular reproduction
  • Study of Mitosis: Smear/Squash preparation of Onion roots
  • Staining of Bacteria (Gram Staining)
  • DNA Extraction from Whole Blood
  • DNA quantification by spectrophotometry using NanoDrop
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification
  • Agarose Gel Electrophoresis