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ECO615 : Poverty and Income Distribution

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Dr. Sami Ullah
GC University Faisalabad

Course Contents

Topic-001 Course Importance

Topic-002 Who is Poor? Unidimensional/Multi Dimensional Poverty

Topic-003 Types of Poverty in Multi-perspective

Topic-004 Sen’s Capability Approach

Topic-005 Multi-dimensionality of Poverty

Topic-006 Poverty, Inequality and Vulnerability           

Topic-007 Why Measure Poverty?

Topic-008 Keeping Poor People on Agenda

Topic-009 Targeting Domestic and Worldwide Interventions

Topic-010 Monitoring and Evaluating Projects and Policy Interventions

Topic-011 To Evaluate the Effectiveness of Institutions Whose Goal is to Help Poor People

Topic-012 Thinking Systematically: Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers

Topic-013 Multi-dimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

Topic-014 Steps in Measuring Poverty  

Topic-015 Household Surveys for Measuring Poverty

Topic-016 Key Issues in Household Survey

Topic-017 Survey Design as Common Problem

Topic-018 Key Questions to Ask About Any Survey

Topic-019 Use of Survey Data for Poverty and Inequality Measurement

Topic-020 Example; Implications of Poverty Measures through Survey

Topic-021 Sampling Techniques; Random vs Stratified Sampling

Topic-022 Sampling Techniques; Random vs Cluster Sampling              

Topic-023 Nature of Questions During Poverty Surveys

Topic-024 Variability and Time Period During Poverty Measurement

Topic-025 Comparison of Households with Same Characteristics

Topic-026 Key Features of Standardized Surveys

Topic-027 Multi-topic Questionnaires

Topic-028 Quality Control

Topic-029 Measuring Poverty: Choosing an Indicator of Welfare                     

Topic-030 The Welfarist Approach

Topic-031 Expenditure as Measure of Welfare

Topic-032 Monetary Measure; Income as Poverty Measure

Topic-033 Issues in Income as a Good Measure of Poverty

Topic-034 Consumption as Poverty Measure

Topic-035 Comparison of Income vs Consumption as Poverty Measure

Topic 036 Life Cycle Hypothesis for Income and Consumption    

Topic-037 Measuring Durable Goods in Poverty Measures

Topic-038 Value of Housing Services in Poverty Surveys

Topic-039 Wedding and Funeral in Consumption/Surveys

Topic-040 Differences in Household Composition

Topic-041 Example on comparison

Topic-042 Adult Equivalents in Poverty Measurement   

Topic-043 OECD Scale for Adult Equivalence

Topic-044 Other Scales for Adult Equivalence

Topic-045 Estimate an Equivalence Scale

Topic-046 Logic of Income or Expenditures for Poverty

Topic-047 Comparison of Income vs Consumption for Welfare

Topic-048 Calorie Approach in Poverty Measure 

Topic-049 Food Consumption as Fraction of Total Expenditure

Topic-050 Anthropometric Standard as Poverty Measure

Topic-051 Peer Assessment as Poverty Measure

Topic-052 Poverty and Quality of Life Indicators

Topic-053 What is Poverty Line?

Topic-054 Poverty Line for Household

Topic-055 Relative Poverty

Topic-056 Absolute Poverty

Topic-057 Example; the $1 per day as standard

Topic-058 Issues in Choosing Poverty Line

Topic-059 Data on Absolute vs Relative Poverty in Regions

Topic-060 Objective Poverty; The Cost of Basic Needs Method

Topic-061 Poverty Lines in Pakistan

Topic-062 Pakistan Poverty Baskets/Monetary Value/Bands

Topic-063 Food Energy Intake Method for Poverty Line

Topic-064 Poverty Line Assessment, Absolute vs Relative

Topic-065 Per Capita Daily Calorie Intake and Poverty Line

Topic-066 Food Energy Intake Method, Demerits

Topic-067 Rural-Urban Problems in Poverty Line Identification

Topic-068 Relative Price Problem in Measuring Poverty

Topic-069 Subjective Poverty Lines

Topic-070 Poverty Measurement

Topic-071 Head Count Index or Incidence of Poverty

Topic-072 Demerits of Head Count Index

Topic-073 Poverty Gap Index

Topic-074 Graphical Presentation of Poverty Gap Index

Topic-075 Use of Poverty Gap Index in Policy Design

Topic-076 Squared Poverty Gap or Severity of Poverty

Topic-077 Foster-Greer-Thorbeck Poverty Measures

Topic-078 Sen Index of Poverty Measure

Topic-079 Sen-Shorrocks-Thon Index for poverty measure

Topic-080 The Watts Index for Poverty 

Topic-081 Calculating the Watts Index

Topic-082 Comparison of Poverty Measures

Topic-083 Time Taken to Exit from Poverty

Topic-084 Errors in Measuring Poverty

Topic-085 Sampling Error

Topic-086 Measurement Error

Topic-087 Equivalence Scales

Topic-088 Choice of Poverty Line

Topic-089 Standard of Living Measurement

Topic-090 Poverty Deficit Curves

Topic-091 Robustness in Poverty Measure

Topic-092 Concept of Inequality

Topic-093 Global Inequalities

Topic-094 Types of Inequality; Horizontal vs Vertical Inequality

Topic-095 Social Justice and Distributional Issues

Topic-096 Social Dimensions of Inequality

Topic-097 Contributions of Sen, Rawls, Nozick, Nussbaum

Topic-098 Breakdown of Income in Pakistan

Topic-099 Breakdown of Consumption in Pakistan

Topic-100 Inequality Trends in Pakistan

Topic-101 Measures of Inequality 

Topic-102 Decile Dispersion Ratio for Inequality Measurement

Topic-103 Gini Coefficient of Inequality

Topic-104 Lorenz Curve for Inequality

Topic-105 Characteristics of Gini as Good Measure

Topic-106 Generalized Entropy Measure of Inequality

Topic-107 Atkinson Inequality Measure

Topic-108 Comparison of Income Inequality

Topic-109 Comparison of Consumption Inequality Measures

Topic-110 Inequality Measurement Comparison

Topic-111 Pro-poor and Pro-rich Growth

Topic-112 Measurement of Pro-poor Growth

Topic-113 Decomposition of Income Inequalities

Topic-114 Examples for Inequality Decomposition

Topic-115 Change in Income and Gini Coefficient

Topic-116 Income Distribution Dynamics

Topic-117 Size Distribution and Inequality

Topic-118 Curvature of the Lorenz Curve and Inequality

Topic-119 Gini Coefficients and Aggregate Measures

Topic-120 What’s So Bad about Extreme Inequality 

Topic-121 What is Poverty Profile?

Topic-122 What is a Country Poverty Profile?

Topic-123 Selected Characteristics of the Poor                                      

Topic-124 Poverty among Household Groups        

Topic-125 Indicators of Poverty Profile  

Topic-126 Indicators of Poverty Profile

Topic-127 Additive Poverty Measures                                   

Topic-128 Types of Poverty Profile Presentation

Topic-129 Poverty Comparisons Over Time

Topic-130 Pakistan’s Official Poverty Estimates

Topic-131 Poverty Risks for Selected Groups of Households

Topic-132 Poverty Profile and Characteristics of the Poor

Topic-133 Transition in Poverty Profile of Pakistan

Topic-134 Performance of Pakistan’s Key Indicators   

Topic-135 Estimates of Vulnerability to Poverty

Topic-136 Poverty Profile of Pakistan

Topic-137 Poverty Profile of Pakistan

Topic-138 Poverty Mapping    

Topic-139 Errors in Poverty Mapping

Topic-140 Decomposition of Income Inequality for Pakistan

Topic-141 Decomposition of Consumption Inequality

Topic-142 What Causes Poverty?

Topic-143 Region Level Factors of Poverty

Topic-144 Community Level Determinants of Poverty

Topic-145 Demographic Determinants of Poverty

Topic-146 Economic Characteristics of the Poor

Topic-147 Social Characteristics of the Poor

Topic-148 Education and Poverty

Topic-149 Determinants of Poverty through Regression

Topic-150 Analysis of Regression Findings

Topic-151 Determinants of Household Consumption

Topic-152 Explanation of the Independent and Dependent Variables

Topic-153 World Bank Classification of Anti-Poverty

Topic-154 Pro-Poor Growth

Topic-155 Is Growth Good for the Poor?

Topic-156 Empirical Test for Pro-Poor Growth

Topic-157 Graphical Presentation of Pro-Poor Growth

Topic-158 Determinants of Growth

Topic-159 Role of Average Income in Poverty Reduction

Topic-160 Determinants of Pro-Poor Growth

Topic-161 Growth and Distribution Effects of Poverty    

Topic-162 Elasticities of Poverty Reduction

Topic-163 Lack of Opportunities as Determinant of Poverty

Topic-164 Example: Lack of Opportunities

Topic-165 Empowerment as Determinant of Poverty

Topic-166 Example of Empowerment

Topic-167 Different Contents of Empowerment in Society

Topic-168 Deprivation of Capabilities as Determinant of Poverty

Topic-169 Social Norms/Practices and Poverty

Topic-170 Measurement of Empowerment for Poverty

Topic-171 Policy Suggestions for Empowerment  

Topic-172 How to Increase Accountability?

Topic-173 How to Increase Local Organizational Capacity?

Topic-174 Income Security for Poverty Alleviation Strategy

Topic-175 Large Adverse Shocks and Poverty

Topic-176 Design of Poverty Alleviation Strategy

Topic-177 Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP)

Topic-178 Summary of PRSP-II: Pakistan Case Study

Topic-179 GDP Growth; Trends and Analysis

Topic-180 Why GDP Growth of Pakistan is Instable?

Topic-181 International Comparison; Is It a Complex Phenomenon?

Topic-182 Global Comparison of Poverty Strategies         

Topic-183 Millennium Development Goals (MDG''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s)

Topic-184 Choice of Poverty Line; Income vs Consumption

Topic-185 Poverty Comparison of Different Regions

Topic-186 Estimation of Poverty in Developing Countries

Topic-187 Computing GDP Per Capita in PPP Terms

Topic-188 Survey Data and National Accounts for Poverty

Topic-189 Why Poverty Estimates Differ?

Topic-190 Illustrating the Effects of Response Bias/Underreporting

Topic-191 Debate 1: Is World Poverty Falling?

Topic-192 Debate 2: Is World Poverty Really Falling?

Topic-193 Choice of Poverty Line

Topic-194 Use of PPP Exchange Rates

Topic-195 Application of Poverty Line on Household Data

Topic-196 Analysis of Poverty Over Time

Topic-197 Types of Poverty Over Time

Topic-198 Panel Data and Poverty Measures Over Time 

Topic-199 Sources of Information on Poverty Over Time

Topic-200 Questions Used in Cross Sectional Surveys

Topic-201 Repeated Cross Sectional Surveys

Topic-202 Panel Data in Poverty Estimation

Topic-203 Rotating Panel in Poverty Over Time    

Topic-204 Advantages of Panel Surveys-1

Topic-205 Advantages of Panel Surveys-II

Topic-206 Advantages of Panel Surveys-III

Topic-207 Advantages of Panel Surveys-IV

Topic-208 Advantages of Panel Surveys-V

Topic-209 Drawbacks of Panel Surveys-I

Topic-210 Drawbacks of Panel Surveys-II

Topic-211 Drawbacks of Panel Surveys-III

Topic-212 Other Issues in Panel and Repeated Cross Section

Topic-213 Other Issues in Panel and Repeated Cross Section

Topic-214 Transient Poverty and Its Types

Topic-215 Chronic vs Transient Poor

Topic-216 Estimates on Chronic, Persistent and Transient Poor

Topic-217 Estimates on Chronic, Persistent and Transient Poverty

Topic-218 Analysis of Poverty Over Time; (Transition Matrix)

Topic-219 Crisis and Poverty

Topic-220 Case Study; Asian Financial Crisis and Poverty in Indonesia

Topic-221 Case Study; Asian Financial Crisis and Poverty in Indonesia

Topic-222 Case Study; Crisis and Poverty in Indonesia

Topic-223 Case Study; Impact of Floods on Poverty in Pakistan

Topic-224 Case Study; Food Inflation and Poverty (Pakistan)

Topic-225 The Problem of Deflation: Poverty Rates Over Time

Topic-226 Who is Vulnerable?

Topic-227 Why Measure Vulnerability?

Topic-228 Trends in Vulnerability to Poverty

Topic-229 Vulnerability to Poverty; Welfare Shock

Topic-230 Vulnerability to Poverty; Socially Defined Minimum Level

Topic-231 Vulnerability to Poverty; Intensity/Depth

Topic-232 Threshold Level of Vulnerability

Topic-233 Quantifying Vulnerability at Household Level

Topic-234 Measuring Expected Consumption and Variance

Topic-235 Methodological Issues in Measuring Vulnerability

Topic-236 Sources of Vulnerability

Topic-237 Framework for Analyzing Vulnerability to Poverty

Topic-238 Mechanisms for Managing Risk

Topic-239 Lessons on Vulnerability to Poverty

Topic-240 Poverty Monitoring and Evaluation

Topic-241 Monitoring and Evaluation for Poverty Projects

Topic-242 Poverty Monitoring Progress   

Topic-243 MDG''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s; Goals, Targets and Indicators-I

Topic-244 MDG''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''s; Goals, Targets and Indicators-II

Topic-245 Selection of Indicators for Poverty Monitoring

Topic-246 Qualities of a Good Indicator for Poverty Monitoring

Topic-247 Setting the Targets for Poverty Reduction

Topic-248 Evaluation of Micro Projects for Poverty Reduction

Topic-249 Challenges in Poverty Evaluation Process

Topic-250 Experimental Design

Topic-251 Quasi-Experimental Methods for Poverty Evaluation

Topic-252 Case Study: Microfinance and the Poor in Bangladesh

Topic-253 Qualitative Methods for Evaluation of Macro Projects

Topic-254 Time Series Data Analysis

Topic-255 General Equilibrium and Simulation Models

Topic-256 Household Panel Impact Analysis

Topic-257 Importance of Regression for Poverty Analysis

Topic-258 Scatter Plot of Poverty Data

Topic-259 Regression Line for Poverty Analysis

Topic-260 The Vocabulary of Regression Analysis

Topic-261 Example: Introduction of Regression in Poverty

Topic-262 Introduction of Regression in Poverty: Role of coefficients

Topic-263 Introduction of Regression in Poverty: Role of R-Square

Topic-264 Introduction of Regression in Poverty: Role of t-statistics

Topic-265 Introduction of Regression: Role of Binary Variable

Topic-266 Problems in Regression Analysis: Measurement Error

Topic-267 Problems in Regression Analysis: Omitted Variable Bias

Topic-268 Problems in Regression Analysis: Simultaneity Bias

Topic-269 Problems in Regression Analysis: Sample Selectivity Bias

Topic-270 Problem of Multicollinearity

Topic-271 Problem of Hetroskedasticity

Topic-272 Problem of Outliers

Topic-273 Solving Estimation Problems

Topic-274 Logistic Regression

Topic-275 Regression on Rural-Urban Migration

Topic-276 The Effects of Taxation on Poverty

Topic-277 Who is Beneficial of Govt. Spending?

Topic-278 Who is Beneficiary of Tax Being Payed

Topic-279 Types of Taxation: Progressive and Poverty Implications

Topic-280 Types of Taxation: Proportional and Poverty Implications

Topic-281 Types of Taxation: Regressive and Poverty Implications

Topic-282 Example of Progressive, Proportional and Regressive Tax

Topic-283 Impact of Tax on Inequality: Kakwani Measure

Topic-284 Impact of Tax on Inequality: Reynolds-Smolensky Measure

Topic-285 Tax Incidence

Topic-286 Benefit Incidence

Topic-287 Issues in Benefit Incidence Analysis

Topic-288 Public Expenditures and Poverty Reduction

Topic-289 Using Survey Data: Some Cautionary Tales

Topic-290 Caution 1. Do the Sampling Right

Topic-291 Caution 2. Use a Consistent Recall Method

Topic-292 Caution 3. Use a Consistent Recall Period

Topic-293 Caution 4. Remember That Price Indices Matter

Topic-294 Caution 5. Use Consistent Questions

Topic-295 Caution 6. Adjust for Non-response Bias

Topic-296 Caution 7. Define Expenditure Consistently

Topic-297 Caution 8. Value Own-Farm Income Properly

Topic-298 Caution 9. Distinguish between Values; Zero and Missing

Topic-299 Caution 10. Use Expenditure Per Capita, Not Per Household

Topic-300 Caution 11. Use Weights When They Are Needed