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Terms of Use

About the Material

The materials / resources on this site are a free and open publication of Virtual University of Pakistan’s (VU) courses. These materials cover courses offered by the University both at the undergraduate and graduate levels; however, it must be noted that these materials are neither a VU education nor give the users any rights and privileges of obtaining a degree from VU. Moreover, access to VU faculty, designers and developers of these materials is not provided and it should be further noted that these materials may not reflect the entire contents of a course. In short, this is not a degree-granting or credit-bearing initiative.

Use of VU Name and Logo

"Virtual University of Pakistan", "VU", and its logo and seal are trademarks of the Virtual University of Pakistan. Except for purposes of attribution as required by VU’s Creative Commons License, you may not use VU’s name or logo, or any variations thereof, without prior written consent of VU. You may not use the VU name in any of its forms nor VU seals or logo for promotional purposes, or in any way that intentionally or unintentionally claims, suggests, or in VU's sole judgment, gives the appearance or impression of a relationship with or endorsement by VU.

Intellectual Property

Virtual University’s Creative Commons license lets you remix, tweak, and build upon VU’s work non-commercially, as long as you credit VU and license your new creations under identical terms. Therefore, every time you use these materials, you must give credit to VU.

Creative Commons License

Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)


You are free:

to Share — to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work

to Remix — to make derivative works

Under the following conditions:

Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).

Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes.
Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.

With the understanding that:

Waiver — Any of the above conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder.
Public Domain — Where the work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
Other Rights — In no way are any of the following rights affected by the license:
  • Your fair dealing or fair use rights, or other applicable copyright exceptions and limitations;
  • The author's moral rights;
  • Rights other persons may have either in the work itself or in how the work is used, such as publicity or privacy rights.
Notice — For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. The best way to do this is with a link to this web page.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
This is a human-readable summary of the Legal Code (the full license).