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BIO302 : Molecular Biology

Course Overview

Course Synopsis

This course is designed for graduate students who will explore basic concepts about molecular biology topics starting from nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), genes, genome and then finally up to the gene expression level. This course will enable the students to get sufficient knowledge about the subject to carry out research in the same field.

Course Learning Outcomes

Understanding the central dogma of molecular biology

  • After the successful completion of this course, students will develop basic knowledge and skills in molecular biology and become aware of the complexity and harmony of the cell. As you proceed through the modules, you will become able to apply this knowledge, skill, and awareness to topics such as: structure and functions of DNA/RNA and proteins, DNA/RNA extraction, PCR, recombinant DNA technology, blotting techniques, concept of gene and chromosomes, transcription, translation and DNA replication.
  • This course is aimed to provide ample knowledge to the students which is sufficient to fulfill the requirements of their BS degree. Students will be able to develop classical understanding about molecular biology. An important objective is to provide a supportive environment for students to cultivate higher order thinking skills by synthesizing concepts and by analyzing and interpreting different questions.

Course Calendar

Introduction to Molecular Biology1PPTs1
History of Molecular Biology2PPTs2
Achievements of Molecular Biology3PPTs3
Nucleic Acids4PPTs4
Chemical composition of DNA5PPTs5
Nucleoside & Nucleotide6PPTs6
Types of Deoxyribonucleotides7PPTs7
How do Deoxyribonucleotides Join?8PPTs8
Structure of DNA9PPTs9
Work of Franklin & Wilkins (1950s)10PPTs10
Structure of DNA - 211PPTs11
Chemical composition of RNA12PPTs12
Types of Ribonucleotides13PPTs13
Types of RNAs14PPTs14
Structures of RNAs15PPTs15
Nature of Genetic Material16PPTs16
Griffith’s Experiments17PPTs17
Transformation Experiments18PPTs18
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty’s experiment19PPTs19
Hershey & Chase experiment20PPTs20
Chemical composition of proteins21PPTs21
Primary structure of proteins22PPTs22
Secondary structure of proteins23PPTs23
Alpha Helix24PPTs24
Beta Pleated Sheets25PPTs25
Tertiary Structure of Proteins26PPTs26
Quaternary Structure of Proteins27PPTs27
Genetic Materials in Viruses28PPTs28
Organization of Genetic Material in Bacteria -129PPTs29
Organization of Genetic Material in Bacteria - 230PPTs30
Organization of Genetic Material in Eukaryotes31PPTs31
Histone Proteins32PPTs32
The Nucleosome33PPTs33
The 30-nm Fiber - 134PPTs34
The 30-nm Fiber - 235PPTs35
Replication of DNA36PPTs36
Experiment of Meselson & Stahl37PPTs37
Chemistry of DNA Synthesis - 138PPTs38
Chemistry of DNA Synthesis - 239PPTs39
Mechanism of DNA Polymerase40PPTs40
DNA Polymerases Resemble a Hand - 141PPTs41
DNA Polymerases Resemble a Hand - 242PPTs42
DNA mutations52PPTs52
Nature of Mutations53PPTs53
Replication errors54PPTs54
Radiation Demage55PPTs55
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer56PPTs56
(6-4) Photoproducts57PPTs57
x rays and gamma rays damage58PPTs58
DNA instability in water59PPTs59
water-mediated deamination60PPTs60
water-mediated deamination (Conti..)61PPTs61
Oxidative damage to DNA62PPTs62
Oxidative damage to DNA (Conti..)63PPTs63
Alkylation damage to DNA64PPTs64
Alkylation damage to DNA (Conti..)65PPTs65
DNA damage by PAHs66PPTs66
DNA damage by aflatoxins67PPTs67
Chemical cross-linking agents68PPTs68
DNA damage by Psoralen69PPTs69
DNA damage by Cisplatin70PPTs70
Base analogs and interclating agents71PPTs71
Direct reversal of DNA damage72PPTs72
CPD Photolyase74PPTs74
Mechanism of CPD photolyase75PPTs75
(6-4) Photolyase76PPTs76
Damage Reversal by Dealkylation77PPTs77
Dealkylation Enzymes78PPTs78
Base Excision Repair79PPTs79
Base Excision Repair Pathway80PPTs80
Short Patch Repair81PPTs81
Long Patch Repair82PPTs82
Nucleotide Excision Repair83PPTs83
Nucleotide Excision Repair of UV-induced Damage84PPTs84
UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC Proteins85PPTs85
The NER Pathway86PPTs86
Mismatch Repair87PPTs87
Mismatch Repair System in E. coli88PPTs88
MutS, MutL, & MutH Proteins89PPTs89
Mismatch Repair in Eukaryotes90PPTs90
Human Mismatch repair system91PPTs91
The Central Dogma92PPTs92
The Adapter Hypothesis of Crick93PPTs93
Discovery of the Transfer RNA94PPTs94
Discovery of the messenger RNA95PPTs95
Synthesis of RNA upon DNA Templates96PPTs96
Establishing the Genetic code97PPTs97
RNA polymerases99PPTs99
Transcription Process100PPTs100
Elongation during transcription101PPTs101
Transcription cycle in Bacteria102PPTs102
transition to the open step103PPTs103
transition to the open step 2104PPTs104
Initial transcription105PPTs105
the Elongating Polymerases107PPTs107
Termination of the Transcription108PPTs108
Termination of the Transcription II109PPTs109
Rho independent termination110PPTs110
Transcription in Eukaryotes111PPTs111
Formation of Pre-initiation Complex112PPTs112
Promoter Escape113PPTs113
General Transcription Factors114PPTs114
General Transcription Factors (Conti...)115PPTs115
The Mediator Complex116PPTs116
RNA Elongation and Proofreading117PPTs117
RNA Elongation and Proofreading (Conti...)118PPTs118
Transcription Termination119PPTs119
Polymerases I and III120PPTs120
Polymerases I and III (Conti...)121PPTs121
RNA Splicing122PPTs122
How splicing site is determined123PPTs123
Removal on Introns124PPTs124
The Spliceosome125PPTs125
The Splicing Pathway126PPTs126
Self-Splicing Introns127PPTs127
Group I Introns128PPTs128
Finding the Splice Sites Correctly129PPTs129
Alternative Spliceosome130PPTs130
Alternative Splicing131PPTs131
Alternative Splicing 2132PPTs132
Mutually Exclusive Splicing133PPTs133
Regulation by Activators and Repressors134PPTs134
Regulation by Activators and Repressors 2135PPTs135
Mechanism of RNA Editing136PPTs136
Mechanism of RNA Editing 2137PPTs137
RNA Editing by Nucleotide Deamination138PPTs138
RNA Editing by Nucleotide Deamination 2139PPTs139
Messenger RNA141PPTs141
Prokaryotic mRNAs142PPTs142
Eukaryotic mRNAs143PPTs143
Transfer RNA144PPTs144
Secondary structure of tRNA145PPTs145
Attachment of aminoacids to tRNAs146PPTs146
The ribosomes147PPTs147
Structure of Peptide Bonds148PPTs148
Binding sites on the ribosomes on tRNA149PPTs149
Initiation of translation150PPTs150
the initiation factors151PPTs151
Translation elongation152PPTs152
The Ribosome is a ribozyme153PPTs153
The translocation in the large subunits154PPTs154
Termination of the Translation155PPTs155
Termination of the Translation part 2156PPTs156
Nascent Polypeptide processing and folding157PPTs157
Nascent Polypeptide processing and folding part 2158PPTs158
Signal Sequence159PPTs159
Regulation by RNAs in Bacteria160PPTs160
Regulation by RNAs in Bacteria part 2161PPTs161
Regulation by RNAs in Eukaryoutes164PPTs164
Enhancers and Silencers166PPTs166
Monocistronic or Polycistronic mRNA167PPTs167
mRNA has a very short life span168PPTs168
Controlling the rate of mRNA synthesis169PPTs169
Lactose operon170PPTs170
Lac structural genes are regulated171PPTs171
Regulation of Lac mRNA172PPTs172
The operon Model173PPTs173
Allolactose; the inducer of lactose operon174PPTs174
The lac repressor175PPTs175
The lac repressor2176PPTs176
Catabolite Repression177PPTs177
Catabolite Repression 2178PPTs178
The cAMP?CRP complex179PPTs179
Galactose Operon180PPTs180
Galactose Operon 2181PPTs181
Tryptophan Operon182PPTs182
Tryptophan Operon 2183PPTs183
Gene Expression Is Controlled by Regulatory Proteins184PPTs184
Some Activators and Repressors Work by Allostery185PPTs185
Cooperative Binding and Allostery186PPTs186
Activators Recruit the Transcriptional Machinery187PPTs187
Activators Recruit Nucleosome Modifiers188PPTs188
Activators Recruit Additional Factors189PPTs189
Single integration & combinatorial control190PPTs190
Single integration & combinatorial control 2191PPTs191
Transcriptional Repressors192PPTs192
Signal Transduction Pathways193PPTs193
Plasmids as Vectors194PPTs194
Plasmid Selection Systems195PPTs195
pUC Plasmid Cloning Vectors196PPTs196
Virus-based Cloning Vectors197PPTs197
? lambda Phage Vectors198PPTs198
M13 Phage Vectors199PPTs199
Cosmids & Phagemids200PPTs200
Large Insert Capacity Cloning Vectors & YAC vectors201PPTs201
Vectors Used in Eukaryotic Cells202PPTs202
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