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BT101 : Ecology, Biodiversity & Evolution-I

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Ms. Shafaq Fatima
PhD Aquaculture
University of Tasmania, Australia

Course Contents

Introduction-to ecology, Level of organization: Cell, Organism (species), Population, Community, Ecosystem, The ecological niche, Generalist species, Specialist specie, Native species, Nonnative species, Indicator Species, Keystone species, Foundation species, Ecological pyramids, Food pyramids, Organisms-and environment, Food chain, Food webs, Trophic levels, Producers, Terrestrial producers, Aquatic producers, Photosynthesis, Consumers, Primary consumers, Secondary consumers, Tertiary consumers, Omnivores, Decomposers, Detritus feeders or detritivores, Life-supporting system of earth, Population ecology: Dynamics, Population growth, Carrying capacity, Exponential population growth, Logistic population Growth, Population regulation, Population density, Density-independent factors, Density-dependent factors, Impact of human population on environment, Air : its Composition and role in ecosystem, Water, Freshwater ecosystem, Lotic water bodies, Streams, Rivers, Lentic water bodies, Lakes, Oligotrophic lake, Eutrophic lake, Ponds, Inland wetland, Ecological and economic services of a wetland, Brackish water, Estuaries and coastal wetlands, Marine-water ecosystem, Marine water life zones, Importance of marine ecosystems, Aquatic life zones, Coral reefs: amazing centers of biodiversity, Rocky and sandy shores, Soil, Soil types, Soil profile, Temperature, Thermoregulation, Ectotherms, Endotherms, Torpor, Hibernation, Winter sleep, Aestivation, Light, Source of light, Electromagnetic radiations, Energy quality, Community ecology, Species composition, Species richness, Species diversity and dominance, Succession, Primary succession, Secondary succession, Successional path, How Living Systems Are Sustained, Stable community, Interspecific competition, Coevolution, Symbiosis, Parasitism, Commensalism, Mutualism, Lichens, Mycorrhizae, Root nodules, Interspecific adaptations, Camouflage, Cryptic coloration, Counter-shading, Aposematic coloration, Mimicry, Biome, Atmosphere, Biogeochemical cycles, Carbon cycle, Nitrogen cycle, Phosphorus cycle, Phosphorus cycle, Sulfur cycle, Water cycle, Water cycle, Pollution, Organic pollutants:Bio stimulants, Water pollution, Air pollution, Noise pollution, Climate change, Greenhouse effect, El-nino effect, Global warming, Role of carbon dioxide in global warming, Effects of global warming, Ozone layer, Role of ozone layer, Ozone-layer destruction, Solid Waste, Strategy to Protect Ecosystems, Stabilize Global Population, Consumption, Economic reforms, Protected areas, Monitor biodiversity, Waste management, Introduction-to biodiversity, Types of biodiversity, Organismal diversity, Species diversity, Population diversity, Community diversity, Ecosystem diversity, Genetic diversity, Landscape diversity, Biogeographic diversity, Functional diversity, Cultural diversity, Types of biodiversity over spatial scale, Alpha diversity, Beta diversity, Gamma diversity, Biodiversity importance, Threats to biodiversity, Resource depletion & biodiversity, Overpopulation & overconsumption, Habitat loss & fragmentation, Invasive species, Overexploitation, Pollution, Five-kingdom classification, Kingdom-Monera: Concept, Archeobacteria, Eubacteria, Kingdom-Protista: concept, Chrysophytes, Dinoflagellates, Euglenoids, Slime moulds, Protozoans, Kingdom-fungi: concept, Phycomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes, Kingdom-Plantae: Concept, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, Kingdom-Animalia: concept, Level of organizations, Symmetry, Coelom, Porifera, Radiata, Bilateria: Acoelomates, Bilateria: Pseudocoelomates, Bilateria: Coelomates I, Bilateria: Coelomates II, Bilateria: Coelomates III, Bilateria: Coelomates IV, Speciation, Geographic isolation, Reproductive isolation, Premating isolation, Postmating isolation, Allopatric speciation I, Allopatric speciation II, Parapatric speciation I, Parapatric speciation II, Sympatric speciation I, Sympatric speciation II, Extinction, Causes of extinction, Types of extinction, Background extinction, Mass extinction, Consequences of extinction, How life evolve on earth, Introduction-to Evolution, Evidence of evolution, Biogeography, Paleontology, Fossils, Comparative anatomy, Homologous organs, Analogous organs, Vestigial structures, Molecular biology, Pre-Darwinian theories, Theory of inheritance of-acquired characteristics, Early development of Darwin’s ideas of evolution, Geology, Fossil evidence, Galapagos islands, The theory of evolution by natural selection, The modern synthesis, Phylogenetic systematic.