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BT102 : Microbiology

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Prof. Dr. Irshad Hussain
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA

Course Contents


Definition of Microbiology and in what way microbes affect our lives, Classification of microbes, History of Microbiology, Spontaneous generation theory, Golden Age of Microbiology, Modern Microbiology and its various branches, Microscopy: Light microscope, Microscopy: Various types of microscopes, Preparing smears for light microscopy, Simple and differential stains and staining, Acid-fast and negative staining of microbes, Structural difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, Size, shape and arrangement of bacterial cells, Structures external to the cell wall, The cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Movement of material across membrane, Internal Structures of prokaryotes, Structure of Endospore, External structures of a eukaryotic cell, Structure of plasma membrane, cytoplasm and ribosomes in eukaryotes, Organelles and their structures in eukaryotes, Catabolism and metabolism, Enzymes and coenzymes, Factors affecting enzymatic activity, Oxidation Reduction Reactions, Generation of ATP, Glycolysis, Cellular Respiration, Fermentation, Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration, Lipid and Protein catabolism, Photosynthesis, Metabolic Diversity among organisms, Metabolic Pathways of energy use, Physical requirements for bacterial growth, Chemical requirements, Biofilms, Culture Media, Obtaining pure cultures, Growth of bacterial cultures, The terminology of microbial control, The rate of microbial death, Actions of microbial control agents, Physical methods of microbial control, Chemical Methods of microbial control, Microbial characteristics and microbial control, Genetic transfer and recombination, The study of phylogenetic relationship, Methods of classifying and identifying microorganisms, Dichotomous keys and cladograms, Fungi, Lichens, Algae, Protozoa, Slime molds, Viral Structure, Isolation, cultivation, and identification of viruses, Multiplication of bacteriophages, Multiplication of animal viruses, Viruses and cancers, Prions, Plant viruses and viroids, Pathology, infection and disease, Koch’s Postulates, Classifying infectious diseases, Patterns of disease, The spread of infection, Nosocomial infections, Epidemiology, How microorganisms enter a host, How bacterial pathogens penetrate host defenses, How bacterial pathogens damage host cells, Viral mechanisms for evading host defenses, Portal of exits, Innate immunity, Adaptive immunity, Formed elements in blood, The Lymphatic system, Phagocytes and phagocytosis, Inflammation, Fever, Antimicrobial substances of the body, Humoral immune response, Cellular immune response, Antigens, Antibodies, Clonal selection of theory of antibody, Antigen antibody binding and its results, T cells and cellular immunity, Antigen presenting cells, Immunological memory, Types of adaptive immunity, Vaccines, Modern vaccines, Diagnostic immunology, Hypersensitivity Type I-IV, Autoimmune diseases, HLA complex and tissue transplantation, Immunodeficiencies, The spectrum of antimicrobial activity, The actions of antimicrobial drugs, Commonly used antimicrobial drug, Tests to guide chemotherapy, Resistance to antimicrobial drugs, The future of chemotherapeutic agents


1.       Sterilization techniques: Physical Agents (Dry Heat)

2.       Sterilization techniques: Physical Agents (Moist heat)

3.       Fractional sterilization (Tyndallization)

4.       Sterilization techniques: Physical Agents (Radiation)

5.       Sterilization techniques: Chemical Agents (Gas)

6.       Sterilization techniques: Chemical Agents (Liquids)

7.       Sterilization techniques: Mechanical Removal methods (Filtration; Fluid filters)

8.       Sterilization techniques: Mechanical Removal methods (Filtration; Air filters)

9.       Culturing of bacteria in liquid medium

10.    Culturing of bacteria on solid medium

11.    Gram staining of bacteria

12.    HA and HI tests

13.    ELISA test

14.    Bacterial cell count

15.    Study of growth curve of bacteria

16.   Biochemical tests