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BT301 : Introduction to Biotechnology

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Dr. M. Safwan Akram, Dr. Hamid Mukhtar, Dr. Jamil Ahmad, Dr. Basharat Ali

Course Contents

Introduction, Biotechnology in 21st Century, Roots of Biotechnology, Commercial Application of Biotechnology, Nucleic Acids and their structure, Chemical composition of DNA Nucleoside & Nucleotide, Types of Deoxyribonucleotides, Chemical composition of RNA, Types of ribonucleotides, Protein structures, Primary structure of proteins, Secondary structure of proteins, Alpha Helix, Beta Pleated Sheets, Tertiary Structure of Proteins, Quaternary Structure of Proteins,  Genetic Material in Viruses, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Genes and Genomes, Types of eukaryotic DNA, Duplicated genes and Pseudo genes, Repetitive DNA, Mobile DNA, Movement of transposons and retrotransposons Comparing distantly and closely related species, Anatomy and organization of genome, Gene anatomy, Genetic Variations, Southern, Northern, Western blotting  Techniques, Transformation and enzymes, Plasmids, Natural plasmids as cloning vehicles, Bacteriophage M13 as vector, Cosmid and Phasmid vectors, Basic PCR reaction, PCR principles and procedure, DNA polymerases, Primers, Degenerate primers, Types of PCR, Competitor RT-PCR, Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), Nested PCR, Inverse PCR, Multiplex PCR, RAPD, RFLP, AFLP-PCR, Applications of PCR, PCR-Medicine, PCR-Forensic sciences, PCR-Agricultural sciences and environment, PCR-Molecular palaeontology, DNA sequencing: Benefits and Applications, Maxam-Gilbert method, Chain termination or dideoxy procedure, Automated DNA sequencing, Sequencing accuracy, DNA sequence databases, Mutagenesis, Cassette mutagenesis, Primer extension: the single primer method, PCR methods for site-directed mutagenesis, Genome mapping     and Sequencing , DNA Micro-array, Knock Outs & Knock Inns  Technology