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ENG509 : Morphology and Syntax

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Prof. Shakeel Amjad
Beaconhouse National University

Course Contents

Introduction Morphemes Morphology in Action Abstract Morphological Facts Background and Beliefs Introduction to Morphological Analysis What is a Word? Empirical Tests for Wordhood Types of Words Inflection vs. Derivation Two Approaches to Morphology The Lexicon Morphology and Phonology Allomorphs Prosodic Morphology Primary and Secondary Affixes Linguistic Exaptation, Levelling, and Analogy Morpho-Phonology and Secret Languages The Saussurean Sign Motivation and Compositionality Zero Derivation Other Derivational Processes Clipping and Backformation Derivation and Structure Words and Grammar Regular and Irregular Inflections Forms of Nouns Forms of Pronouns & Determiners Forms of Verbs Forms of Adjective Relationship Between Lexemes Word Class & Conversion Adverb Derived From Adjectives Noun Derived from Nouns Adjectives Derived from Adjectives Verbs Derived from Verbs Compound vs. Phrases Compound Verbs Compound Nouns and Headed and Headless Compounds Blends and Acronyms Compounds Containing Bound Combining Forms Phrasal Words Morphological Structures:Introduction Properties of Morphological Structures A-Morphous Morphology Exocentricity Bracketing Paradoxes Parasynthesis Introduction: Derivation and Semantics The Polysemy Problem The Semantics of Derived Lexemes The Semantics of Affixation The Semantics of Zero Derivation English Agent Nouns in –er Introduction Inflection What Is Inflection? Inflection versus Derivation Inventory of Inflectional Morphology Types: I Inventory of Inflectional Morphology Types: II Syncretism Lexical Source of English Word Formation The Rarity of Borrowed Inflectional Morphology Reduction in Inflectional Morphology Characteristics of Germanic and Nongermanic Derivations Fashions in Morphology History and Structure What is Morphological Productivity? Productivity and Structure: Negative Prefixes in English Degrees of Productivity Testing Productivity The Mental Lexicon Psycholinguistics and Neurolinguistics Morphology and Syntax Morphological vs. Syntactic Inflection Structural Constraint on Morphological Inflections Inflection and Universal Grammar Grammatical Function Change Productivity in Grammatical Function Change Morphology and Mind The Use of Mental Lexicon Acquisition of Morphology The Sources of Evidence Models of Morphological Knowledge Morphological Processing The Nature of Language Change Internal The Nature of Language Change External Historical Sources of Morphology Changes in Morphological Rules Changes in Word Structure Some Notions About Grammar Some Authorities of Grammatical Tradition Concept of Parts of Speech Parts of Speech in English Prescriptive Grammar Problems of Prescriptive Grammar Concept of Sentence In Prescriptive Grammar Hierarchy of Sentence Descriptive Grammar Sentence Structure Noun Phrases Structure of Verb Phrase Structure of Adjective Phrase Structure of Adverb Phrase Minimal Noun Phrase Tree Structure of a Phrase IC Analysis Method of Display Flaws in the ICs Phrase Structure Rules Disadvantages of PS The Great Automatic Grammatizator Label bracketing Behaviouristic View the Irrelevance of Rats Is Language Restricted to Humans Biological Evidence A Preordained Language Programme Conceivable Innate Grammatical Information Transformational Grammar The Founder and the Theory Introduction. Grammatical Categories Lexicalsubstantive Categories Functional Categories Complimentisers Types of Clauses Introduction.. Concepts and Misconception Use of Linguistic Examples Why do Languages have Syntax? All Languages have Structure Promotion and Demotion Introduction to UG Universal Grammar Language Faculty Principles of Universal Grammar Parameters Adjective & Adverb Sentence Presenting Structure Bracketing Tree Diagram and Phrase Structure Rules Subordination in PS Rules Sentence and Discourse Constituents Test Variations on Basic Sentence Patterns Clefting Pseudo- Clefting Passivisation Pronominalization & Fronting Sentences Compound & Complex Sentence Clauses Phrases Pronoun One-word phrases Element After the Head Verb Phrase Verb Complements Element before the Head Adjective Phrases Prepositional Phrase Adverb Phrases Words Noun Verb Adjective and Adverb Prepositions & Conjunction Functions Verb Phrases Grammatical Functions in Subject Grammatical Function of Predicate Sentence Adjunct Predicative Complements Direct Object Indirect Object Adverbial Complements with Intransitive Verbs Adverbial Complements with Transitive Verbs Predicative Complement + Adverbial Complement a Complex Function Verb Patterns and Functions- A Summary Sentence Adjuncts and VP-Adjuncts Sentence Adjuncts and VP-Adjuncts II Function of Clauses Finite Clauses Clauses as Adjuncts Non-finite and Verbless Clauses Empty Subject Clause Processes Leftward movement Subject-auxiliary Inversion Do-insertion Wh-movement Subcategorisation Frames and Wh-movement Prepositional Phrases in Wh -questions Wh-movement of Subjects Indirect Yes No Questions Indirect Wh-questions Long Wh-movement Relative Clauses The Meaning of Relative Clauses Deletion in Relative Clasues That in Relative Clasues Adverbial Relative and Free Relative Appositive Clause Reduced Relative Clause Fronting Passivisation. The By-phrase Movement of Focus Position It-extraposition in Active Sentences It-extraposition with Non -finite Clauses It-extraposition in Verbless Clauses It-extraposition with Object Clauses Subject verb inversion There-insertion Extraposition from NP Heavy object-shift Clefting. Pseudoclefting Substitution By Pro-Forms Ellipsis Subject Deletion Verb Gapping And Backward Gapping Non-Finite Clauses NON-FINITE CLAUSES; RAISING AND CONTROL Non-finite clauses non-finite clauses; raising and control. Non-finite subordinate clauses with lexical subjects Non-finite clauses without lexical subjects FOR ... TO FILTER RAISING Raising II Raising with intransitive verbs and with adjectives Concluding raising CONTROL Non-lexical subjects Control vs raising Subject and object control Indefinite control Control adjectives Reanalysis a problem of bracketing Preposition & particles I Preposition & particles II Preposition & particles III Concluding Preposition or Particles Concluding Preposition or Particles II Prepositional verbs I Prepositional verbs II Prepositional verbs III Prepositional Idioms Levels of structure (1) Levels of Noun Phrase Levels of structure (2) One-substitution I One-substitution II Layering One-word phrases. Prepositional phrases Adj phrase Discontinuous strings Summing up Theory of X bar A full sentence in X-bar Quantity of sentence structure Morphology in wider setting Diachronic Morphology. Morphology in Language Acquisition Asking questions about syntax. What questions to investigate What questions to investigate II Pedagogical aspects of morphology & syntax Enhancing vocabulary Developing reading skills Better understanding of the language teaching Development of syntactic skill The knowledge of Morphosyntax