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ZOO301 : Animal Form & Function-I

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Course Info

Course Category

Zoology

Course Level

Undergraduate

Credit Hours

4

Pre-requisites

N/A

Instructor

Ruqia Bibi
MS Zoology
Virtual University of Pakistan

Course Contents

Protection, Support, and Movement: Protection: the integumentary system of invertebrates and vertebrates; movement and support: the skeletal system of invertebrates and vertebrates; movement: non-muscular movement; an introduction to animal muscles; the muscular system of invertebrates and vertebrates Communication I: Nerves: Neurons: structure and function; neuron-neuron communication: introductory accounts of resting membrane potential, action potential (nerve impulse) and transmission of the action potential between cells; invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems: the ventral nerve cord 36 and ganglia, the vertebrate brain, the spinal cord, cranial and spinal nerves; autonomic nervous system. Communication II: Senses: Sensory reception: baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, georeceptors, hygroreceptors, phonoreceptors, photoreceptors, proprioceptors, tactile receptors, and thermoreceptors of invertebrates; lateral line system and electrical sensing, lateral-line system and mechanoreception, hearing and equilibrium in air and water, skin sensors of mechanical stimuli, sonar, smell, taste and vision in vertebrates. Communication III: The Endocrine System and Chemical Messengers: Chemical messengers: hormones chemistry; and their feedback systems; mechanisms of hormone action; some hormones of porifera, cnidarians, platyhelminthes, nemerteans, nematodes, molluscs, annelids, arthropods, and echinoderms invertebrates; an overview of the vertebrate endocrine system; endocrine systems of vertebrates, endocrine systems of birds and mammals. Circulation, Immunity, and Gas Exchange: Internal transport and circulatory systems in invertebrates: characteristics of invertebrate coelomic fluid, hemolymph, and blood cells; transport systems in vertebrates; characteristics of vertebrate blood, blood cells and vessels; the hearts and circulatory systems of bony fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals; the human heart: blood pressure and the lymphatic system; immunity: nonspecific defenses, the immune response; gas exchange: respiratory surfaces; invertebrate and vertebrate respiratory systems: cutaneous exchange, gills, lungs, and lung ventilation; human respiratory system: gas transport. 
Practicals 
1. Study of insect chitin, fish scale, amphibian skin, reptilian scales, feathers and mammalian skin. 2. Study and notes of skeleton of Labeo, Rana tigrina, Varanus, fowl and rabbit. Note: Exercises of notes on the adaptations of skeletons to their function must be done. 3. Earthworm or leech; cockroach, freshwater mussel, Channa or Catla catla or Labeo or any other local fish, frog, pigeon and rat or mouse and rabbits are representative animals for study in dissections. 4. Study of models or preserved brains of representative animals and notes on adaptations. 5. Study of nervous system of earthworm and a fish. 6. Study of endocrine system in an insect and a rabbit. 37 7. Study of different types of blood cells in blood smear of rabbit. 8. Study of heart, principal arteries and veins in a representative vertebrate (dissection of representative fish/mammals). 9. Study of respiratory system in cockroach or locust and a vertebrate representative (Model).