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ZOO502 : Animal Physiology and Behavior

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University of the Punjab

Course Contents


General Themes in Physiology Structure-function relationship, Adaptation, Acclimatization and Acclimation, Principle of homeostasis, Feedback systems, Conformity and Regulation

Membrane Physiology Membrane composition and structure, Membrane permeability: diffusion, membrane flux and osmosis, facilitated diffusion, Donnan equilibrium, Ion distribution across membrane, Active transport and Na+/K+ Electrogenic Ion Pump, Membrane excitation and potentialsm, Resting membrane potential, Action Potential, Ion channels

Nerve Physiology Neuronal structure, function and organization, Transmission of signals in the nervous system, Propagation of Action Potentials in neurons, Synapses and their types,  Neurotransmitters, Postsynaptic mechanisms

Endocrine Physiology Gland types, Endocrine system: overview, Role of hypothalamus, Hormones of pituitary gland, Metabolic and developmental hormones, Hormones involved in water and ion regulation, Reproductive hormones, Prostaglandins

Cardiovascular Physiology Electrical activity of the heart (rhythmicity, cardiac output, heart rate and ECG), Hemodynamics, Peripheral circulation and blood pressure, Regulatory control of circulation

Respiratory Physiology Respiratory surfaces: general considerations, Oxygen and CO2 in blood, Functional anatomy of lung, Neural control of breathing, Respiratory responses to extreme conditions: Hypoxia, Hypercapnia, Diving, exercise, Gas exchange in gills

Animal Behavior Sensory input and behavioral stimulation: simple and complex behaviors, Learning behaviors, Role of genetics and environment on development of behavior, Survival  and reproductive success: the aims of animal behavior, Inclusive fitness and Altruism, Social learning, Evolution and human culture



  1. Determination of haemoglobin content.
  2. Determination of  haematocrit
  3. Cell counting by using hemocytometer
  4. Preparation of blood smears.
  5. Normal cardiac activity, effect of temperature, effect of drug
  6. Heart block, tetanization of heart.
  7. Measurement of blood pressure 
  8. Effect of insulin on glycemia, study of stages in estrous cycle.
  9. Locomotory behavior of small animals, earthworm.
  10. Locomotory behavior of small animals, garden snails.
  11. Ear pinna reflex responses in domestic cats
  12. Pecking behavior of chickens
  13. Hiding behavior of chicks
  14. Preparation of skinner box or maze for study of mouse or rat behavior
  15. Infant killing behavior
  16. Altruistic behavior in monkeys