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ZOO502 : Animal Physiology and Behavior

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University of the Punjab

Course Contents

The Spectrum of Study of Physiology, Central Themes in Physiology, Structure-Function Relationships, Adaptation, Acclimatization and Acclimation, Principle of Homeostasis, Feedback Control Systems, Conformity and Regulation, Membrane Permeability, Diffusion and Membrane Flux, The Facilitated Diffusion, Donnan Equilibrium, Ion Distribution across the Plasma Membrane, Active Transport and Na K Pump, Membrane Potential and Membrane Excitation, Role of Ion Channels, Resting Membrane Potential, Action Potentials, General Properties of Action Potentials I, General Properties of Action Potentials II, Ionic Basis of Action Potential, Ion channels Localization and Characterization, Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels, Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels, Structural Features of Neuron, Transmission of Signals in the Nervous System, Transmission of Signals in a Single Neuron, Propagation of Action Potentials, Speed of Propagation, Axon Myelination and Saltatory Conduction, Synapses and Their Types (Electrical Synapses), Synapses and Their Types (Chemical Synapses), Mechanism of Release of Neurotransmitters, Excitatory and Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials, Neurotransmitters (Diversity and Classification), Fast Direct Neurotransmitters, Slow Indirect Neurotransmitters, Neuropeptides (Endorphins and Enkephalins), Receptors in Fast Direct Neurotransmission, Receptors in Slow Indirect Neurotransmission, Neuromodulation, Neural Integration, Sensory Stimuli-Sensory Organs and Receptor Cells, Sensations and Quality of Stimulus, Sensory Modalities and Receptor Types, Properties of Receptor Cells, Sensory Transduction, Range Fractionation, Sensory Adaptation, Chemoreceptors (Taste and Smell Receptors), Mechanism of Taste Reception, Mechanism of Olfactory Reception, Mechanoreception, Hair Cells , Organs of Equilibrium, The Mammalian Ear, Cochlea, Sound Transduction by Cochlear Hair Cells , Frequency Analysis by Cochlea, Electroreception, Hormones for Water Regulation and Ion Balance , Reproductive Hormones, Prostaglandins, Feedback Mechanisms, Mechanisms of Hormone Action, Lipid Soluble Hormones (Mechanism of Action), Lipid Insoluble Hormones (Intracellular Signaling), Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Systems, Inositol Phospholipid and Ca+2 Signaling Syste, The Structure of Muscl, Myofilament Substructure, Contraction of Muscle (Sliding Filament Theory), Role of ATP in Cross Bridge Working, Production of Force for Sliding of Filaments, Role of Calcium in Contraction, Excitation Contraction Coupling, T-Tubules (Propagation of AP into the Myofibril)  , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum , Membrane Receptors in Triads, Summary of Muscle Contraction Mechanism , Isometric and Isotonic Contractions , Muscle Twitch and Tetanus , Neural Control of Muscle Contraction, Neurosensory Basis of Behavior , Neuronal Plasticity , Inborn- Innate or Instinctive Behaviors, Fixed Action Patterns , Animal Orientation Kinesis and Taxis , Animal Navigation and Migration, Behavioral Rhythms, Animal Signals and Communication, Pheromones and Chemical Communication , Genes & Environment in Behavior Development, Habituation and Imprinting, Spatial Learning and Cognitive Maps , Associative Learning, Cognition and Problem Solving, Foraging Behavior, Foraging Model (Risk and Reward Balance), Mating Behaviors and Systems, Parental Care, Sexual Selection and Mate Choice, Social Behaviors, Social Behavior (Living in Groups), Agonistic Behaviors, Altruism, Kin Selection and Inclusive Fitness, Reciprocal Altruism, Social Learning, Evolution and Human Culture    


1.         Determination of haemoglobin content.

2.         Determination of  haematocrit

3.         Cell counting by using hemocytometer

4.         Preparation of blood smears.

5.         Normal cardiac activity, effect of temperature, effect of drug

6.         Heart block, tetanization of heart.

7.         Measurement of blood pressure

8.         Effect of insulin on glycemia, study of stages in estrous cycle.

9.         Locomotory behavior of small animals, earthworm.

10.       Locomotory behavior of small animals, garden snails.

11.       Ear pinna reflex responses in domestic cats

12.       Pecking behavior of chickens

13.       Hiding behavior of chicks

14.       Preparation of skinner box or maze for study of mouse or rat behavior

15.       Infant killing behavior

16.       Altruistic behavior in monkeys