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ZOO502 : Animal Physiology and Behavior

Course Overview

Course Synopsis

This course which introduces students to the fundamentals of animal physiology and their behavior. It provide information about the physiological mechanisms including neuro-endocrine, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, digestive systems etc. It also impart knowledge about animal responses to external stimuli along with neurophysiological basis of behavior.

Course Learning Outcomes

Homeostatic regulations, Body functions, Behavioral responses.

  • The students will become familiar with the basic facts and principles of Animal Physiology.
  • The students will be able to describe and explain, in physiological terms, the functional anatomy of the major organ-systems found in animal bodies.
  • Students will also gain basic information about the laboratory techniques and equipment used in physiological experiments and research
  • The study of animal behavior will enable the students to understand the neurologic basis and evolution of advanced animal behavior.


Course Calendar

TopicLectureResourcePage
1The Spectrum of Study of Physiology
2Central Themes in Physiology
3Structure-Function Relationships
4Adaptation, Acclimatization And Acclimation
5Principle of Homeostasis
6Feedback Control Systems
7Conformity and Regulation
8Membrane Permeability
9Diffusion and Membrane Flux
10The Facilitated Diffusion
11Donnan Equilibrium
12Ion Distribution Across The Plasma Membrane
13Active Transport and Na K Pump
14Membrane Potential and Membrane Excitation
15Role of Ion Channels
16Resting Membrane Potential
17Action Potentials
18General Properties of Action Potentials I
19General Properties of Action Potentials II
20Ionic Basis of Action Potential
21Ion channels—Localization and Characterization
22Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels
23Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels
24Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels
25Structural Features of Neuron
26Transmission of Signals in the Nervous System
27Transmission of Signals in a Single Neuron
28Propagation of Action Potentials
29Speed of Propagation
30Axon Myelination and Saltatory Conduction
31Synapses and Their Types (Electrical Synapses)
32Synapses and Their Types (Chemical Synapses)
33Mechanism of Release of Neurotransmitters
34Excitatory and Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
35Neurotransmitters (Diversity and Classification)
36Fast, Direct Neurotransmitters
37Slow, Indirect Neurotransmitters
38Neuropeptides (Endorphins and Enkephalins)
39Receptors in Fast, Direct Neurotransmission
40Receptors in Slow, Indirect Neurotransmission
41Neuromodulation
42Neural Integration
43Sensory Stimuli, Sensory Organs and Receptor Cells
ASSIGNMENT NO.1
44Sensations and Quality of Stimulus
45Sensory Modalities and Receptor Types
46Properties of Receptor Cells
47Sensory Transduction
48Range Fractionation
49Sensory Adaptation
50Chemoreceptors (Taste and Smell Receptors)
51Mechanism of Taste Reception
52Mechanism of Olfactory Reception
53Mechanoreception
54Hair Cells
55Organs of Equilibrium
56The Mammalian Ear
57Cochlea
58Sound Transduction by Cochlear Hair Cells
59Frequency Analysis by Cochlea
60Electroreception
61Thermoreception
62Photoreception (Basics)
63The Vertebrate Eye (Structural Physiology)
64Visual Receptor Cells of Vertebrates
65Visual Pigments and Their Photochemistry-I
66Visual Pigments and Their Photochemistry-II
67The Color Vision
68Glands, Secretions and Secretory Mechanisms
69Types of Glands
70Vertebrate Endocrine System (An Overview)
71Hormones and Their Properties
72Chemical Types and Functions of Hormones
73Synthesis of Hormones
74Neuro-Endocrine Role of Hypothalamus
75Pituitary Gland and Its Hormones
76Adenohypophysis (Tropic Hormones)
77Adenohypophysis (Non-Tropic Hormones)
78Hormones of Neurohypophysis
79Thyroid Gland and Its Hormones
80Parathyroid Gland and Its Hormones
81Adrenal Glands
82Catecholamines (Synthesis and Release)
83Catecholamines (Effects and Mode of Action)
84Adrenal Cortex (Corticosteroids)
85Pancreas (Insulin and Glucagon Hormones)
86Role of Testes as Endocrine Tissue
87Role of Ovaries as Endocrine Tissue
88pineal gland
89Placental Hormones
QUIZ NO.1
90Metabolic and Developmental Hormones
91Hormones for Water Regulation and Ion Balance
92Reproductive Hormones
93Prostaglandins
94Feedback Mechanisms
95Mechanisms of Hormone Action
96Lipid Soluble Hormones (Mechanism of Action)
97Lipid Insoluble Hormones (Intracellular Signaling)
98Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling Systems
99Inositol Phospholipid and Ca+2 Signaling Systems
100The Structure of Muscle
101Myofilament Substructure
102Contraction of Muscle (Sliding Filament Theory)
103Role of ATP in Cross Bridge Working
104Production of Force for Sliding of Filaments
105Role of Calcium in Contraction
106Excitation Contraction Coupling
107T-Tubules (Propagation of AP into the Myofibril)
108Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
109Membrane Receptors in Triads
110Summary of Muscle Contraction Mechanism
111Isometric and Isotonic Contractions
112Muscle Twitch and Tetanus
113Neural Control of Muscle Contraction
114Muscle Fatigue
115Lever System of the Body
116Cardiac Muscles
117Smooth Muscles
118Excitatory and Conductive System of Heart
119Pacemakers
120Autorhythmicity of Pacemaker
121Role of Ion Channels in Self Excitation
122Transmission of Excitation Over the Heart
123Effect of ACh and Catecholamines on Excitation
124Cardiac Output and Stroke Volume
125Changes in Pressure and Flow During One Beat
126Work Done by the Heart
127Electrocardiogram (ECG)
128Kymography
129Introduction to Hemodynamics
130Laminar and Turbulent Flow
131Relationship Between Pressure and Flow
132Vascular Resistance to Flow
MID TERM EXAM
133Viscosity of Blood
134Compliance in Circulatory System
135Peripheral Circulation
136Blood Pressure
137Effect of Gravity on Pressure and Flow
138Counter Current Exchangers
139Capillaries and Microcirculation
140Capillary Pressure and Flow
141Regulatory Controls of Circulation
142Central Control of Cardiovascular System
143Arterial Baroreceptors
144Arterial Chemoreceptors
145Cardiac Receptors
146Nervous Control of Microcirculation
147Local Control of Microcirculation
148Respiration (General Considerations)
149Respiratory Pigments
150Transport of Oxygen in Blood
151Transport of Carbon Dioxide in Blood
152Vertebrate Lungs
153Functional Anatomy of Mammalian Lungs
154Lung Volumes and Capacities
155Mechanism of Lung Ventilation in Mammals
156Mechanism of Ventilation in Birds
157Mechanism of Lung Ventilation in Reptiles
158Mechanism of Ventilation of Lungs in Frogs
159Pulmonary Surfactants and Alveolar Collapse
160Neural Control of Breathing
161Factors Affecting Breathing
162Respiratory Responses to Hypoxia
163Respiratory Responses to Hypercapnia
164Respiratory Responses to Diving
165Gas Exchange Across Gills of Fishes
ASSIGNMENT NO.2
166Functional Anatomy of Gills of Fishes
167Osmoregulation and Excretion
168Osmoregulators and Osmoconformers
169Osmoregulation in Aquatic Environments
170Osmoregulation in Fresh Water Animals
171Osmoregulation in Marine Animals
172Osmoregulation in Terrestrial Animals
173Osmoregulation in Desert Living Animals
174Osmoregulation in Marine Mammals
175Osmoregulation in Terrestrial Arthropods
176Mammalian Kidney (Anatomy)
177Mammalian Kidney (Anatomy of Nephron)
178Blood Supply to the Nephron
179Urine Production (Overview)
180Glomerular Filtration
181Tubular Reabsorption
182Tubular Secretion
183Glomerular Filtration Rate
184Regulation of pH by Kidneys
185Urine Concentrating Mechanisms
186Renal Regulatory Mechanisms
187Nitrogenous Wastes in Animals
188Excretion of Ammonia (Ammonotelic Animals)
189Excretion of Urea (Ureotelic Animals)
190Excretion of Uric Acid (Uricotelic Animals)
191Overview of the Alimentary Systems
192Generalized Alimentary Canal
193Headgut
194Foregut (Esophagus and Crop)
195Foregut (Stomach)
196Midgut (Small Intestine)
197Absorptive Epithelium of Intestine
198Hindgut (Large Intestine)
QUIZ NO.2
199Motility of the Alimentary Canal
200Muscular and Ciliary Motility
201Peristalsis
202Control of Alimentary Canal Motility
203Gastrointestinal Secretions
204Exocrine Secretions—Water, Mucus and Ions
205Exocrine Secretions—Bile and Bile Salts
206Digestive Enzymes (Proteases)
207Digestive Enzymes (Carbohydrases and Lipases)
208Proenzymes
209Control of Digestive Secretions
210Control of Salivary and Gastric Secretions
211Control of Intestinal and Pancreatic Secretions
212Absorption of Food in Intestine
213Absorption Mechanisms
214Absorption by Active Transport and Endocytosis
215Transport of Nutrients
216Water and Electrolyte Absorption
217Homeotherms and Poikilotherms
218Endotherms and Ectotherms
219Heterotherms
220Ectotherms in Cold and Freezing Environments
221Ectotherms in Hot Environments
222Costs and Benefits of Ectothermy
223Temperature Relations of Heterotherms
224TNZ, LCT and UCT for Endotherms
225Temperature Relations of Endotherms
226Thermogenesis in Endotherms
227Endothermy in Cold Environments
228Countercurrent Heat Exchange Systems
229Endothermy in Hot Environments
230Evaporative Cooling
231Thermostatic Role of Hypothalamus
232Thermoregulatory Centers in
233Fever
GDB
234Thermoregulation During Exercise
235Dormant States (Sleep and Torpor)
236Hibernation, Winter Sleep and Estivation
237Animal Behavior (Basics)
238Scientific Approaches
239Neurosensory Basis of Behavior
240Neuronal Plasticity
241Inborn, Innate or Instinctive Behaviors
242Fixed Action Patterns
243Animal Orientation, Kinesis and Taxis
244Animal Navigation and Migration
245Behavioral Rhythms
246Animal Signals and Communication
247Pheromones and Chemical Communication
248Genes & Environment in Behavior Development
249Habituation and Imprinting
250Spatial Learning and Cognitive Maps
251Associative Learning
252Cognition and Problem Solving
253Foraging Behavior
254Foraging Model (Risk and Reward Balance)
255Mating Behaviors and Systems
256Parental Care
257Sexual Selection and Mate Choice
258Social Behaviors
259Social Behavior (Living in Groups)
260Agonistic Behaviors
261Altruism
262Kin Selection and Inclusive Fitness
263Reciprocal Altruism
264Social Learning
265Evolution and Human Culture
FINAL TERM EXAM
 
 
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