GSC101 : General Science

Course Overview

Course Synopsis

The course provides general science instruction and training to a level where a student can be proficient in teaching of science at a middle school level or can enter and succeed in a science/technology course at the Intermediate level in a science or health services related field. This course includes, Introduction to G. Science & System of Measurement, Kinematics, Kinematic Equations, Newton’s laws of motion, Linear momentum & Tension in a string, Work, Energy & Power, Heat, Light, Fundamental Concepts of Chemistry, Atomic Structure, Chemical Bonds, Chemical Reactions, Mixture and Solution, Acids, Bases and Salts, Metals and Nonmetals, Metallurgy of Copper & Aluminum, Iron and its Metallurgy, Corrosion and its preventions, Hydrogen and Oxygen, Nitrogen, Halogens and Chlorine gas, Organic Chemistry, Levels of Organization in Life, Cell theory & Cellular components, Diversity of Cells & Mitosis, Cell division-Meiosis, Chromosomes, DNA & Genes, Digestive System, Transport System and Blood - The Circulatory Fluid, Circulatory System in Humans - Blood Vessels & Heart, Respiratory System, Excretory System, Reproductive System, Ecology& Ecosystems, Food Chains & Food Webs, Algae & Fungi, Animals & Their Importance, Applications of Biology.

Course Learning Outcomes

At the end of the course, you should be able to:

  • Defining the need of a measurement system, Rest and Motion, Types of motion Distance and displacement, Speed and velocity, Relative velocity, Acceleration, Graphical representation and interpretation of distance, displacement, velocity and acceleration with respect to time.
  • Equations of motion, First equation of motion, Second equation of motion, Third equation of motion and their employment in everyday life, Newton’s laws of motion, First law of motion, Second Law of motion, Unit of Force ,Third law of motion Mass and weight, Tension in a string, Momentum and Friction
  • Work, Power, Energy, Types of energy, Conversion of kinetic and Gravitational potential energy, Law of conversion of energy
  • Thermometry, Heat, Laws of Conservation of energy and their applications Latent Heat, Evaporation
  • Reflection of light, Reflection from spherical mirrors, Linear magnification Laws of refraction, Total internal reflection Structure of the eye, Comparison with a camera, Vision defects and correction using lenses
  • Types of matter, Elements and compounds, Symbols, Formulas, Atoms: what are they? Atomic mass, Molecules: what are they? Examples, H2, H2O, Ions: negative, positive, complex, simple
  • Sub-Atomic particles: Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, Atomic number, Isotopes, Electronic configuration of shells with Examples
  • Definition of Chemical Bond, Types of Bonds: ionic: transfer of electrons, properties of ionic and covalent compounds, Changes: Physical and chemical, Chemical reactions: formation and breakage of bond, Equations, Types of chemical reactions: addition, substitution (Displacement), Decomposition
  • Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures; Types of solutions: solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, gas- gas, etc. Unit of concentration: %age (by mass and bu volume), Concept of Acids and Bases, Examples of acids and bases, properties of acids and bases, Acid base reaction (Neutralization) salt formation, Examples of acid-base reactions, PH scale.
  • Definition of Metals and non-metals, important metals, Occurrence of metals, Metallurgy, Metallurgy of iron, copper and aluminum Alloys, rusting and corrosion, Properties of alloys, Methods to prevent corrosion, Hydrogen: preparation and properties; Oxygen: preparation and properties, uses and compounds, focus on combustion.
  • Nitrogen and its preparation and properties, uses, compounds, NH3 and HNO4, What are Halogens? F, Cl, Br, I, Properties of Cl2. Compounds: NaCl, HCl, Definition of Organic compounds, various classes, functional groups, Must establish connection to familiar organic compounds - those encountered in daily life
  • Levels of organization of life Atomic and sub-atomic level, Molecular level, Organelle level, Cellular level, Tissue level, Organ level and organ system level, Individual level, Ecosystem level and biosphere level
  • Salient features of Cell Theory, Division of cellular contents into protoplasmic and non-protoplasmic, Division of protoplasmic contents into cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus, Structure, chemical composition and functions of cellular components, Cell wall, Cell membrane / Plasma membrane, Main phenomena for the movement of materials through cell membrane (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endocytosis), Cytoplasm, Mitochondrion, Ribosome, Endoplasmic reticulum, Type of ER, Golgi complex, Plastids, Centriole, Vacuole, Lysosome, Difference between a typical plant and animal cell, Introduction of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, with examples
  • Introduction of cell division, Types of cell division, Details of the events of mitosis, Karyokinesis, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis, Cytokinesis in animal cell, Cytokinesis in plant cell, Importance of mitosis, Development and growth, Replacement of cells and wound healing, Regeneration, Asexual reproduction, Errors in mitosis, Uncontrolled mitosis (Cancer)
  • Definition of meiosis, Details of the events of Meiosis I, Karyokinesis, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Cytokinesis, Meiosis II, Comparison of meiosis and mitosis, Importance of meiosis, Genetic variations, Errors in meiosis, Introduction of non, disjunction and its results, Twins, Mitosis and Maternal twins, Meiosis and Fraternal twins
  • The structure and chemical composition of chromosome, Introduction of DNA and gene, Mechanism of gene action (transcription and translation), Introduction and need of digestion, Basic components of human digestive system: alimentary canal and accessory glands, Structure and function of the parts of human alimentary canal: oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, Role of liver and pancreas in digestion
  • Introduction and need of transport of materials, Basic components of human circulatory system: blood, blood vessels, heart, Composition of blood and functions of the main components of blood, Blood plasma, Blood cells and cell-like bodies: Erythrocytes, leucocytes, thrombocytes, Structures and functions of blood vessels, Arteries, Veins, , Capillaries, Main arteries and veins in human arterial and venous systems, Structure of human heart, Double pump action of heart: blood circulation in heart chambers, Role of Heart valves in preventing backflow of blood in heart chambers
  • Introduction and need of respiration, Difference between cellular respiration and organismic respiration (breathing), Basic components of human respiratory system: air passageway and lungs, Structures and functions of the main parts of air passageway, Nose and nasal cavities, Pharynx, Larynx: voice box, Trachea (windpipe), Bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, Structure of lungs, Lung capacity and breathing rate, Effects of exercise on breathing rate
  • Introduction and need of excretion, Basic components of human excretory system: kidneys and accessory parts, External and internal structure of kidney, Renal cortex and renal medulla, Structure of Nephron, Functioning of the kidney: Urine formation, Pressure filtration, Re-absorption, Tubular secretion, Accessory parts, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Urethra.
  • Introduction of reproduction, Basic components of male reproductive system: testes and accessory tubes, Function of testes, Basic components of female reproductive system: ovaries and accessory tubes, Function of ovaries, Accessory tubes, Oviduct, Uterus, Ecology as the study of interactions among organisms and their environment. Introduction of the factors that affect the quality of environment, Human interference
  • Industrial effluents, Deforestation, Natural factors, Natural disasters (floods, earthquakes etc.), Importance of environment for the healthy living of organisms, Introduction of ecosystem, with examples, Basic components of an ecosystem; and their roles / significance, Biotic components, Producers, Consumers, Decomposers, Abiotic components, Water, Light, Air, Soil.
  • Definition of food chain, Example of a food chain from land (grassland) ecosystem, Example of a food chain from aquatic ecosystem, Definition of food web, Example of a food web from land, (grassland) ecosystem, Example of a food web from aquatic ecosystem.
  • Algae, Distinguishing characteristics of algae, with examples, Distribution and Significance of algae, Important producers of the planet Earth, Algae as human diet alternatives, Fungi, Distinguishing characteristics of fungi, with examples, Habitats and Significance of fungi, Important reducers / decomposers, Food source, Sources of medicines, Pathogenic fungi causing diseases in plants and humans
  • Distinguishing characteristics of animals, with examples, Diversity among animals, Invertebrates and vertebrates, with examples, Importance of invertebrates, Components of food webs, Role in soil fertility, Parasitic invertebrates, Major classes of vertebrates, and their importance, Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals.
  • Demonstrate understanding and appreciation of diversity of life and significance of the interactions of biosphere with the surroundings

Course Calendar

Physics Portion Lecture 1 - 14
Introduction to G. Science & System of Measurement1
Kinematics- I2
Kinematics- II3
Kinematic Equations4
Newton’s laws of motion5
Linear momentum & Tension in a string6
Work, Energy & Power I7
Work, Energy & Power II8
Online Quiz No. 1
Energy Power & Heat9
Heat II10
Heat III11
Light I12
Light II13
Light III14
Chemistry Portion Lecture 15 - 28
Atomic Structure15
Assignment No. 1
Fundamental Concepts of Chemistry16
Chemical Bonds17
Chemical Reactions18
Organic Chemistry19
Metals and Nonmetals20
Metallurgy of Copper & Aluminum21
Iron and its Metallurgy22
Mid Term Exam
Corrosion and its preventions23
Hydrogen and Oxygen24
Halogens and Chlorine gas26
Mixture and Solution27
Online Quiz No.2
Acids, Bases and Salts28
Biology Portion Lecture 29 - 45
Levels of Organization in Life29
Cell theory & Cellular components30
Diversity of Cells & Mitosis31
Cell division-Meiosis32
Chromosomes, DNA & Genes33
Assignment No.2
Digestive System34
Transport System and Blood - The Circulatory Fluid35
Circulatory System in Humans - Blood Vessels & Heart36
Respiratory System37
Excretory System38
Ecology I39
Graded Discussion Board
Ecology II Ecosystems40
Food Chains & Food Webs41
Algae & Fungi42
Online Quiz No. 3
Animals & Their Importance43
Reproductive System44
Applications of Biology45
Final Term Exam
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