# Virtual University of Pakistan

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## PHY301 : Circuit Theory

### Course Overview

#### Course Synopsis

All electrical devices and computers are based upon some electric elements and circuits. The purpose of this course is to provide the student with a basic knowledge of linear circuits, and linear circuit elements (like voltage and current sources, resistor, capacitor and inductors).The goal is to develop in the student an understanding of analysis of electric circuits and an analytic approach to solve a circuit network using different techniques and theorems. Semiconductors are of obvious importance, as they are the basis for the development of modern electronics. Semiconductors, the lifeblood of microchips that epitomize modern technology, are special in many ways. Semiconductors are materials that conduct electricity better than insulators, but not as well as conductors. Yet, by altering their structure a little bit, we gain the ability to build components whose electrical properties we can control with tremendous ease, allowing us to use them in electronic applications in so many ways. The second half of this course will then start to talk about the basics of semiconductor devices (Diodes and Transistors), their types and functions.

#### Course Learning Outcomes

After studying the material in this course, you should be able to:

• Understand basic concept and terms of circuit elements,voltage and current, reference directions, power and energy.
• Analyze simple resistive circuits containing controlled sources and apply Ohm's Law, Kirchoff's Laws, Nodal analysis technique, and Mesh analysis technique in circuit analysis problems.
• Apply linearity property, superposition, source transformation in circuit analysis problems.
• Analyze circuits containing switches, independent sources, dependent sources, resistors, derive Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits
• Understand about semiconductor diodes, transistors, their types and applications.

#### Course Calendar

 Topic Lecture Resource Page International System of Units-Structure of the Atom-Conductors-Insulators-Semiconductors-Electric Charge-Polarities 1 Handouts 1-6 Basic electricity and circuit elements -The closed circuit -Open circuit -Short circuit -Power - Passive sign conventions 2 Handouts 7-11 Resistances in Series-Resistances in parallel 3 Handouts 12-18 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 2 Inductance - Capacitance - Ohm`s Law - Power Dissipation in Resistance 4, Handouts 19-25 Current sources and Voltage sources -Direct&Alternating quantities -Voltage dividers and Current dividers 5 Handouts 26-32 Current divider and Voltage divider circuits 6 Handouts 33-38 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 2 Assignment No. 1 Kirchhoff`s Laws Kirchhoff`s Current Law (KCL) - Node - Branch - Loop - Ground 7 Handouts 39-44 Application of Nodal Analysis 8,9 Handouts 44-51 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 3 Applications of Nodal Analysis-Super Node - Constraint or Coupling Equation 10,11 Handouts 52-58 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 3 Kirchhoff`s Voltage Law (KVL) - Loop -Applications in Loop Analysis 12 Handouts 59-60 Quiz No. 1 Applications of Loop Analysis-examples 13,17 Handouts 60-74 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 3 Assignment No. 2 Applications of Loop Analysis - Super Mesh Technique-examples 18,19 Handouts 75-82 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 3 Applications of Loop Analysis - Super Mesh Technique - Coupling equation 20 Handouts 83-85 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 3 Examples of Loop Analysis by using dependent sources - Coupling equation 21 Handouts 86-88 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 3 Matrices and Determinants method in solving circuit equations 22 Handouts 89-92 Midterm Examination Superposition Theorem and its applications in circuit network 23 Handouts 93-96 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 4.2 Source Transformation and its applications in circuit network 24 Handouts 97-101 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 4 Thevenin`s Theorem and its applications in circuit network 25,26 Handouts 102-112 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 4.3 Norton`s Theorem and its applications in circuit network 27,28 Handouts 113-123 Irwin(7th Edition) Chapter 4.3 Assignment No. 3 Basic semiconductor concepts 29 Handouts 124-126 Boylested&Nashelsky(7th edition) Chapter 1 PN Junction Diode - Ideal Diode - Ideal Diode as a Rectifier(continue…) 30 Handouts 127-129 Terminal characteristics of the Junction Diode - Forward bias region 31 Handouts 130-133 Reverse bias region - Break down region - Analysis of Diode circuits 32 Handouts 134-137 DC or Static Resistance - The constant voltage drop model - AC or Dynamic Resistance 33 Handouts 138-142 Small Signal Model and its applications 34 Handouts 143-148 Transformers - step up-step down-Applications 35 Handouts 149-152 Graded Discussion Board( GDB) Negative Half Wave Rectifiers - Load voltage and current - Average Load voltage and current 36 Handouts 153-156 Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) - Full wave rectifier 37 Handouts 157-160 Negative full wave rectifier - Full wave bridge rectifier 38 Handouts 161-164 Quiz No. 2 Filters - Clippers - Series Clippers 39 Handouts 165-169 Parallel Clippers - Clampers 40 Handouts 170-173 Assignment No. 4 (Non graded) Diode logic gates (OR Gate) ( AND Gate) - Voltage Multipliers - Half wave voltage doubler - Zener diode - Zener diode shunt regulator 41 Handouts 174-177 Applications of Zener Diode shunt regulator - Light emitting diode(LED) - PIN Photodiodes - Tunnel Diode 42 Handouts 178-181 Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT) -Types, Modes of operation 43 Handouts 182-186 Boylested&Nashelsky(7th edition) Chapter 3 DC biasing of Transistor -Characteristic of BJT-Load line analysis 44 Handouts 187-192 Boylested&Nashelsky(7th edition) Chapter 4 Emitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit-DC biasing BJT-Voltage Divider Bias Circuit and its application 45 Handouts 193-198 Final Examination